Master Data

Technical Objects/Master Data : 

Technical Object is a generic term for,
                     1)   A component in a technical system on which a maintenance task is performed (functional location).
                     2)  A physical object that is maintained as an autonomous unit (equipment).

In Other words, Technical Object is nothing but an object which requires Maintenance. In Plant maintenance basically there are two main types of Technical Objects.

Technical objects are maintained in the SAP System in separate master records. If you want to represent part of a technical system as a technical object, you can:

    a) Manage individual data.

    b) Perform breakdown, prepared, or planned maintenance tasks.
    c) Record maintenance tasks that have been performed.
    d) Collect and evaluate technical data over long periods of time.
    e) Track the costs of maintenance tasks.
    f) Track which piece of equipment was installed when at which functional location.

Example: A functional location can be a pumping station in a clarification plant at which a pump is installed as a piece of equipment.

1) Functional Location : 

The business object functional location is an organizational unit within Logistics, which structures the maintenance objects of a company according to functional, process-related or spatial criteria. A functional location represents the object at which a maintenance task is to be performed. A functional location represents system area at which an object can be installed. The objects that can be installed at functional locations are called Equipment.

You create a functional location in following cases, 

a) When you have to perform maintenance task on a particular part of your complete technical system and record the same.
b) When you have to track the maintenance history of a particular technical object.
c) When you want to represent a major equipment which consist of many small equipment.
d) When you have to monitor Maintenance  Cost.

1.1) Functional Location Category An indicator that let you differentiate functional locations according to how they are used. Each location category required in the system is described using parameters. The number of functional location categories in a system depends on the number of parameter constellations required

1.2) Structure Indicator for Functional Locations : Numbering of functional Locations will be based on the structure indicator. The Structure Indicator defines the format of the code used to describe the Functional Location hierarchy. The Structure Indicator determines the edit mask and the number of the hierarchy levels when you create functional location structures. The edit mask defines: 

  a) the total length of the functional location number.
  b) the lengths of the individual blocks of the functional location number.
  c) the characters allowed.

Example of Edit mask : 

Structure Indicator
Structure Indicator
Edit Mask
Hierarchy Level
1          2       3         4          5       6          7         8

2) Equipment : 

Equipment is a representation of every important and expensive  individual component of a machinery such as Pump, Engine, Motor, Tire etc. 

The business object "Equipment" is an individual, physical object that is to be maintained

independently. It can be installed in a technical system or part of a technical system. We can manage all types of objects as pieces of equipment. Equipment can also be managed as "assets" in Asset Management.

All types of device as pieces of equipment (for example, production utilities, transportation utilities,test equipment, production resources/tools, buildings, PCs) can be identified as Equipment.

Each piece of equipment is a separate master record and an individual maintenance history can be set for each one. The system manages the master records for pieces of equipment at client level. This means that their numbers are valid for the entire corporate group.

This will facilitate, 
     a) Defining breakdown / Preventative maintenance tasks.
     b) Measuring specific parameters. 
     c) Classification data. 
     d) Collection, evaluation, retrieval of data including cost of maintenance, history and usage.

     e) Spare parts planning.

Equipment is created when,

1) you have to represent an object which is autonomous and not dependent on hierarchy. 

2) Record the usage time of this object at a particular functional location
3) ŸBreakdown, prepared or preventive maintenance tasks are required for an object and     must be recorded.

2.1) Equipment Categories : An indicator used to differentiate pieces of equipment according to its characteristic & usage. In SAP, Equipment categories control the number assignment of Equipment. There are two possible options when you are creating a piece of equipment:

a) Internal number assignment

The numbering shall be internal (SAP generated internal number) and is limited to 18 
characters. However, Technical Identification No of Equipment (KKS Code) can be maintained in a separate field in Equipment Master.

b) External number assignment

You can enter your own equipment number as per the configured number ranges in the SPRO settings.

2.2) Technical Object Type  : It is the sub-division of the equipment category, which allows a more detailed description. This allows, grouping of pieces of equipment that have the same use. These object types can be alphanumeric.

 3) Bill Of Material : 

Bills of material is a term used for spare parts which are to be replaced but no history is to be maintained. There are different types of BOM - Production BOM, Maintenance BOM, Costing BOM, Construction BOM. etc. These types of BOM are used for different purpose based on Enterprise business requirement.

In Plant Maintenance, we use Maintenance BOM which is devided into three subcateogires such as 

Functional Location BOM, Equipment BOM and Material BOM.

Other Master data in SAP PM

Other than Functional location, Equipment and Bill of Material, there following important master data items in SAP PM module.

1) Task list : List of maintenance task to be performed by a technician to maintain a particular technical object.

Maintenance Task Lists describe a sequence of individual maintenance activities which must be performed repeatedly within a company. These are the master data for Preventative Maintenance Process. There are three types of maintenance task lists that can be distinguished from one another using indicators:

Equipment Task List

Equipment task lists have a specific link to a piece of equipment. Using equipment task lists,

you can centrally define and manage maintenance tasks for your pieces of equipment.

Functional Location Task List

A functional location task list is assigned to a specific functional location. Using a functional

location task list, you can centrally define and manage maintenance tasks for your functional

General Maintenance Task List

General maintenance task lists are task lists that are used for general maintenance tasks. 
They do not refer to a specific technical object. Using general maintenance task lists, you can define and manage sequences of maintenance tasks centrally, and use them for maintenance planning.

2) Measuring Points : Measuring points are physical and/or logical locations ( of a technical object) at which a particular condition is described − for example, the temperature, pressure etc. You can enter measurement readings for each object to be maintained.

3) Measuring Counters : These are resources that enable you to represent the wear and tear of an technical object or the consumption or reduction in its useful life. E.g. Running hours of a machine, Mileage indicator of a vehicle. You can enter measurement or counter readings for each object to be maintained.

Other items like maintenance plans, measurement documents we will cover in Maintenance planning process page.

4) Catalog profile/Code groups /codes :  
Catalog Profile is a combination of code groups from several catalogs. Catalog is a compilation of code groups with related contents.

Code Groups consists of data on problems, damages, causes and Corrective action to be taken or taken is recorded in the system

Codes are the means with which this data is managed in the Plant Maintenance (PM) application components. There is a corresponding code for each set of findings. The codes are grouped together in code groups according to particular characteristics.

5) Warranties : Warranties define the scope of the services that a company performs at a technical object in the event of damage or problems. You can assign warranties to pieces of equipment, functional locations, or serial numbers. When warranty is assigned to a technical object, The system can automatically check when processing a maintenance notification/ order.

6) Classification of Technical Objects : Classification consists of Class and Characteristics. Its basic function is as a repository for all the characteristics the objects can have. These characteristics can then be used to group similar objects together in classes. Classification system is used to maintain technical parameters (as characteristics) of a technical object and to group similar objects in a class. Characteristics will have values for the relevant object. Classification helps in identifying similar objects quickly & easily

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